Gothic art came about due to the simultaneous development of gothic architecture. Gothic art emerged in France in the mid-12th century. Though it was all secular, to me it had a dark and eerie vibe to it.
Notre Dame de Paris
Amiens Cathedral, France Late 15th century
Styles from the Gothic art show the contrast of tight-fitting and draped sections in the construction of garments to emulate the contrast between hard stone and fragile glass in the cathedrals.
Still-life, by Portuguese painter Josefa de Obidos, c.1679,
Baroque style used at least one overgrown element to destabilize the natural figure whether it was high waistlines, huge falling collars and cuffs, shirt-wide breeches and so forth.
Balenciaga spring/summer 2006 had a lot of Baroque elements to it.
The Oath of the Horatii by Jacques Louis David
The module says "Neoclassical clothing was represented by high waistlines (empire waist) on dresses made out of layers of sheer fabrics arranged in draperies imitating ancient Greek and Roman costumes."
Christian Dior fall 09
Gucci fall 05 rtw
The module says "Romantic fashions opposed the balanced Neoclassic silhouettes by introducing unnatural waistlines at the rib cage and reintroducing the ballooning, Gothic-like "leg of mutton" sleeves."
Dior spring 09 couture
Claude Monet, soliel levant 1872
Berthe Morisot, Reading 1873
Impressionism brought about the bustle, amplified use of cascading lace ruffles and functional styles especially for women.
I would say that today's bridal fashion had a lot of bustle
Balmain's 09 collection had a bustle-ruffle inspired look, the whole outfit and the colors obviously don't seem impressionism inspired.
The Peacock Skirt, by Aubrey Beardsley, (1892).
Art Nouveau was global inspired, it took inspiration from decorative arts from all over the world whether it be Japanese prints or Middle Eastern motifs. The result was flowing draped compositions with exotic motifs and color combinations.
Jean Paul Gautier Spring 09
The Persistence of Memory, Salvador Dali 1931
The module says "In fashion, Surrealism was about creating bizarre pairings of materials and objects in a garment or outfit."
Agatha Ruiz de la Prada fall/winter 09